The Earliest Bibles

DSS Dead Sea Scrolls, remains of an ancient Jewish library, written in Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek. The library includes Hebrew Bible manuscripts, as well as Apocrypha and other Jewish literature of the period. (2nd cent. B.C. – 1st cent. A.D.).

English translation: The Dead Sea Scrolls: A New Translation. Rev. ed. Trans. Michael Wise, Martin Abegg Jr. and Edward Cook. HarperOne, 2005.

LXX Septuagint: the Greek version of the Hebrew Bible, begun by 72 Jewish scribes in early 3rd century B.C. and in general use by the mid-2nd century B.C. The final version included the Apocrypha.

ABP: The Apostolic Bible Polyglot, Charles Van der Pool (2006). An interlinear of the Greek Tanakh (no Apocrypha), with English translation.Download.

CATSS: Computer Assisted Tools for Septuagint Study, prepared by the Center for Computer Analysis of Texts, University of Pennsylvania (1995, 2004); available at Unbound Bible.

Elpenor: Bilingual LXX with English translation of L.C.L. Brenton (1851)

LXX2012: Septuagint in American English 2012 (1885, 2012),

NETS: New English Translation of the Septuagint (2009)

MT Masoretic Text (the traditional text of the Hebrew Bible, which may be dated to Rabbi Akiva’s efforts to standardize the Hebrew canon in the early 2nd century A.D. Extant MSS only date to the 10th cent. A.D.)
S Syriac (the Bible in Syrian Aramaic; the Tanakh was first translated by Jews, probably Messianic Jews, in the late 1st century to early 2nd century, and the Besekh by Christians in the late 2nd century.
T Targums, Aramaic translation of the Tanakh with interpretative comments (Extant MSS dated to 70-135 A.D., although such translation existed in an oral form a long time before that, which Jewish authorities date to the time of Ezra.) Online with English translation.
V or Vul Jerome, Biblica Sacra Vulgata (the Latin version of the Bible, A.D. 405)

Greek Texts of the Besekh

TR Textus Receptus (“Received Text”, 1633 ed. of Erasmus’ Greek text of 1516). This Greek text is the basis for the KJV. Online (1894 ed.)
WH-Text The New Testament in Greek, B.F. Westcott & F.J.A. Hort (1881; incorporated reading of newly discovered early manuscripts) Online


Majority Text (AKA Byzantine Text; consists of the largest number of surviving manuscripts, though not the oldest.) NKJV uses the abbreviation M-Text.
NA21—28 Novum Testamentum Graece. ed. Eberhard Nestle, Erwin Nestle, Kurt Aland, et. al. American Bible Society and the British and Foreign Bible Society. (NA1, 1898; NA13, 1927; NA21, 1952; NA25, 1963; NA26, 1975; NA27, 1993; NA28, 2012). This Greek text incorporates the reading of the earliest manuscripts and is generally followed by modern Bible versions. The differences between editions are largely the textual apparatus added listing variant readings of interest to translators and Greek scholars.
UBS1—4 The Greek New Testament. ed. Kurt Aland, Bruce Metzger, et. al. United Bible Societies. (UBS1, 1966; UBS2, 1968; UBS3, 1975; UBS4, 1993;UBS3 and UBS4 correspond to NA26.)
NU-Text Abbreviation used in the New King James Version to denote the combined reading of the Nestle-Aland Greek New Testament (N) and the United Bible Societies’ Greek New Testament (U).

Early Christian (English) Versions (Public Domain) (Online)

Bishop The Bishop’s Bible (1568).
Coverdale Miles Coverdale, Coverdale Bible (1535).
GNV The Geneva Bible (1587).
KJV King James Version, known in Britain as the Authorized Version (1611; revised 1769; based on the TR).
Mace Daniel Mace, New Testament in Greek and English (1729).
Tyndale William Tyndale, Tyndale New Testament (1526).
Wesley John Wesley, The New Testament (1790).
WYC John Wycliffe, Wycliffe Bible (1395, translated from the Latin).

Hebrew Versions of the Besekh

BSI-NT Ha’Brit Ha’Chadashah [New Covenant]: Tirgum Chadash. [New Translation]. Bible Society in Israel, 1991. Online. (Modern Hebrew)
Delitzsch Franz Delitzsch (1813-1890), Hebrew New Testament. Leipzig, 1877.Online. (Biblical Hebrew)
DHE Franz Delitzsch (1813-1890), The Delitzsch Hebrew-English Gospels. Vine of David, 2011. [English translation by the Messianic Jewish publisher]
HEB Hebrew-English Bible. The Bible Society in Israel and the Israel Association for the Dissemination of Biblical Writings, 1996. (Modern Hebrew with English NKJV)
Margoliouth Ezekiel Margoliouth, Ha’Brit Ha’Chadashah al pi Mashiach [New Covenant of the Messiah] Public Domain, 1927. Online. (Biblical Hebrew)
Salkinson Isaac E. Salkinson (1820-1883) and Christian D. Ginsberg (1831-1914), Ha-Berit ha-Hadashah. British Missionary Society, 1886. Online. (19th c. Hebrew)

Modern Christian (English) Versions of the Aramaic Bible (Peshitta)

Roth Andrew Gabriel Roth, Aramaic English New Testament (Netzari Press, 2012).
Alexander Victor Alexander, Aramaic New Testament (2011) Online.
Bauscher, OANT Glenn David Bauscher, The Original Aramaic New Testament in Plain English with Psalms & Proverbs (8th edition; 2013). Online
Etheridge John W. Etheridge, The Peschito Syriac New Testament: Translated into English (1849) Online.
Lamsa George Lamsa, The Holy Bible from Ancient Eastern Manuscripts (1957)Online.
Magiera Janet M. Magiera, Aramaic Peshitta New Testament Translation: Messianic Version (Light of the Word Ministry, 2009).
Murdock James Murdock, A Literal Translation from the Syriac Peshito Version(1852) Online.
Roth, AENT Andrew Gabriel Roth, Aramaic English New Testament (Netzari Press, 2012).
Younan Paul D. Younan, Peshitta Aramaic/English Interlinear New Testament(2000). Online.

Modern Christian (English) Versions

AKJV Authorized King James Version; reproduced by permission of Cambridge University Press, the Crown’s patentee in the UK.
AMP The Amplified Bible, The Lockman Foundation (2015).
AMPC The Amplified Bible: Classic Edition, The Lockman Foundation (1987).
ASV American Standard Version (1901; Public Domain)
BBE C. K. Ogden, The Bible in Basic English (1965).
BLB Berean Literal Bible, Bible Hub and Discovery Bible (2015). Online.
BRG Blue Red and Gold Letter Edition Bible, BRG Bible Ministries (2012).
CEB Common English Bible, Common English Bible (2011).
CEV Contemporary English Version, American Bible Society (1995).
CSB Christian Standard Bible, Holman Bible Publishers (2017). (an update of the HCSB)
Darby, DBY J.N. Darby, Darby Bible (1890; Public Domain).
DHE Franz Delitzsch (1813-1890), The Delitzsch Hebrew Gospels. Vine of David, 2011. (Citation of “DHE” indicates the English translation provided by the publisher.)
DRA/DRB Douay-Rheims Bible, American Edition (1899; Public Domain). [Catholic]
DLNT Disciples Literal New Testament, Michael J. Magill (2011).
EMTV English Majority Text Version: New Testament, trans. Paul W. Esposito (2009). Online.
EHV  Evangelical Heritage Version: New Testament & Psalms, The Wartburg Project (Lutheran) (2017).
ERV Easy-to-Read Version, World Bible Translation Center (2006).
ESV The English Standard Version, Crossway Bibles (2001).
EXB The Expanded Bible, Thomas Nelson Inc. (2011).
Good News Translation, American Bible Society (1992); formerly known as Today’s English Version (1976).
Goodspeed Edgar J. Goodspeed, The New Testament: An American Translation(1923). Online.
GW God’s Word, God’s Word to the Nations (1995).
HCSB Holman Christian Standard Bible, Holman Bible Publishers (2003).
HNV Michael Paul Johnson, Hebrew Names Version of the World English Bible(2008). [AKA Messianic Edition of the World English Bible.] Online.
ICB The Holy Bible, International Children’s Bible, Thomas Nelson (1986, 1988, 1999, 2015).
ISV The Holy Bible: International Standard Version, ISV Foundation (1996-2012).
JB Jerusalem Bible, Darton, Longman & Todd (1966). [Catholic]
JUB Jubilee Bible, Life Sentence Publishing (2000, 2001, 2010).
KJ21 21st Century King James Version, Deuel Enterprises, Inc. (1994).
Knox Knox Bible, Westminster Diocese (2012).
LB Kenneth Taylor, The Living Bible (1971).
LEB Lexham English Bible, Logos Bible Software (2012).
LITV J.P. Green, Literal Translation of the Holy Bible (1976). Online.
ME-WEB Messianic Edition of the World English Bible, Public Domain (2008). See HNV.
MEV The Holy Bible, Modern English Version, Military Bible Association (2014).
MLB Modern Language Bible: The New Berkeley Version in Modern English, Zondervan Pub. House (1969).
MNT, Moffatt James Moffatt, A New Translation of the Bible, Containing the Old and New Testaments, A New Translation (1926). Online.
Mounce-NT or MRINT Robert H. Mounce and William D. Mounce, Mounce Reverse Interlinear New Testament (2011).
MPNT Alfred Marshall, NASB-NIV Parallel New Testament in Greek and English with Interlinear Translation (Zondervan, 1986).
MSG The Message: The Bible in Contemporary Language, E. H. Peterson (2002).
NAB The New American Bible, USCCB (1986). [Roman Catholic] Online.
NABRE The New American BibleRevised Edition, USCCB (2010). [Roman Catholic]
NASB, NAU New American Standard Bible, Lockman Foundation (1960, 1962, 1963, 1968, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1975, 1977; Updated Edition 1995).
NCV New Century Version, Thomas Nelson, Inc. (2005).
NEB The New English Bible, Oxford University Press (1970). Online.
NET The NET Bible/New English Translation, Biblical Studies Press (2005).
NIRV New International Reader’s Version, Biblica, Inc. (1998, 2014).
NIV The New International Version, Biblica, Inc. (1984, 2011).
NJB New Jerusalem Bible, Doubleday Religion (1999). [Roman Catholic]Online.
NKJV New King James Version, Thomas Nelson, Inc. (1982).
NLT New Living Translation, Tyndale House Foundation (1996, 2007).
NLV New Life Version, Christian Literature International (2006).
NMB New Matthew Bible, Ruth Magnusson Davis (2016).
NOG The Names of God Bible, Baker Publishing Group (2011).
NRSV New Revised Standard Version, Division of Christian Education of the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the United States of America (1989).
NTE Nicholas Thomas Wright, New Testament for Everyone (2011).
Phillips, PNT J. B. Phillips, The New Testament in Modern English (1958). Online.
REB Revised English Bible, Oxford University Press and Cambridge University Press (1989).
REV Revised English Version, Spirit and Truth Fellowship International (2013). Online.
RSV Revised Standard Version, Division of Christian Education of the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the United States of America (1952, 1971).
RSV-CE Revised Standard VersionCatholic Edition (1966, 2006).
RV Revised Version, Oxford University Press (1881-1885). [A British revision of the KJV]
TEV See GNT above.
TLB The Living Bible, Kenneth Taylor (1971).
TNIV Today’s New International Version, Biblica, Inc. (2005).
TPT The Passion Translation. BroadStreet Publishing Group, LLC (2017).
Voice The Voice Bible, Thomas Nelson, Inc.; Ecclesia Bible Society (2012).
WBT Noah Webster, Webster’s Bible Translation (1833), revision of the KJV. [Original title: The Holy Bible, Containing the Old and New Testaments, in the Common Version, With Amendments of the Language]
WE Worldwide English New Testament, SOON Educational Publications (1969, 1971, 1996, 1998).
WEB Michael Paul Johnson, World English Bible (1997).
WMB Michael Paul Johnson, World Messianic Bible (2014); aka Hebrew Names Version (HNV). Online.
WNT or Weymouth Richard Francis Weymouth, Weymouth New Testament (1903). Online.
YLT Robert Young, Young’s Literal Translation (1898; Public Domain).

Modern Messianic Jewish (English) Versions

BSI-NT Ha’Brit Ha’Chadashah [New Covenant]: Tirgum Chadash. [New Translation]. Bible Society in Israel, 1991. Online. [Modern Hebrew]
CJB David Stern, Complete Jewish Bible (1998).
DHE Franz Delitzsch (1813-1890), The Delitzsch Hebrew-English Gospels. Vine of David, 2011. [English translation by the publisher]
Einspruch Henry Einspruch, The Good News According to Matthew. Lederer Publications, 1964.
GNC Heinrich Walter Cassirer, God’s New Covenant: A New Testament Translation (1989).
HEB Hebrew-English Bible, The Bible Society in Israel (1996)  [Parallel Bible with both Tanakh and Besekh in Hebrew with NKJV English text.]
MW Daniel Gruber, The Messianic Writings (2012).
NMV Tov Rose, New Messianic Version of the Bible (2013).
OJB Phillip Goble, Orthodox Jewish Bible, Artists for Israel International(2011). Online.
TLV Messianic Jewish Family Bible: Tree of Life Version, Messianic Jewish Family Bible Society (2014). Online.

Modern Non-Messianic Jewish (English) Versions

AST The Stone Edition of the Tanach-ArtScroll Series, Mesorah Publications (1996)
CTR The Complete Tanach with Rashi Commentary , Judaica Press (1993).Online. [Hebrew with English translation by A.J. Rosenberg]
JPS The Holy Scriptures According to the Masoretic Text, Jewish Publication Society of America (1917). Online.
KJB The Koren Jerusalem Bible, Koren Publishers Jerusalem (1964). [Hebrew with English translation]
NJPS New Jewish Publication Society of America Version of the Tanakh (1985). Online.


Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here